This manual is intended to serve as a sourcebook for Volunteers and others to draw upon when implementing educational programs. The activities here are primarily organized according to subject matter, such as soil, water, trees, nature awareness, and ecology, with additional activities included under Service Learning Activities and Games.

The University of Michigan provides an in-depth account of energy flow through ecosystems.

This website explains and differentiates food chains, food webs, and energy pyramids.

The Annenberg Learner is an online teaching resource that provides online and video courses on the arts, foreign languages, literature & language arts, math, science, and social studies & history for all ages.

This website from the University of Florida provides diagrams of the Nitrogen and Phosphorus cycles.

This page from NASA provides a detailed description of the slow carbon cycle that covers 100-200 million years.

This page from NASA provides a detailed description of the fast carbon cycle that covers a living being's lifespan. This version of the carbon cycle is focused on its cycle through living beings.

This webpage provides a summary of keystone species, using elephants and their different habitats as an example.

National Geographic explains what a keystone species is and why they are vital to the well-being of ecosystems. Foundation species, umbrella species, and indicator species are briefly covered as well.

What happens when two similar species that consume the same resources occupy the same space? Interspecific competition, that's what! Watch our video lesson to learn about the outcomes of this ecological battle.

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