This report reviews the literature on school-related gender-based violence (SRGBV) in order to improve understanding about its causes, prevalence, and consequences. It examines how gender norms, poverty, and a culture of violence contribute to SRGBV. The report explores violence that is perpetrated by both male and female students and teachers. While much of the literature focuses on sexual violence, this report also highlights the prevalence and impact of physical and psychological abuse. It examines barriers to preventing and responding to SRGBV, including silence around the issue, inadequate laws and codes of conduct, enforcement problems with existing laws, shortages of teachers and guidance counselors, and flaws in the design and implementation of existing interventions. The report also presents examples of what is being done to address SRGBV, including legal and policy changes, training for teachers and school personnel, counseling and support systems for students, community engagement, and programming that addresses life skills and gender norms with boys and girls. The final section of the report presents recommendations for research and action at the national, institutional, local, and individual levels. Annexes highlight findings from select research studies reviewed for this report and practical tools for addressing SRGBV. Although there is no global data on the prevalence of school-related gender-based violence, the literature reviewed for this report indicates that physical, sexual, and psychological abuse in and around schools is a worldwide problem. Addressing SRGBV is a critical element in ensuring that all children are able to attend school in an environment that allows them to flourish.